Makar Sankranti History in India

Makar Sankranti is a great significant Hindu festival celebrated across India, marking the transition of the Sun into the zodiac signof Capricorn (Makara). Understanding the Makar Sankranti history reveals its deep roots in Indian culture, associated with agricultural practices and solar movements observed by early Indian civilizations. 

Makar Sankranti History

This festival is mentioned that in various Hindu scriptures of their traditions which including the Mahabharata, signifies the end of the season winter solstice and the onset of longer days, symbolizing new beginnings and prosperity.This content looks too roboticThe Makar Sankranti festival also highlights its consistent alignment with the solar calendar, making it unique compared to lunar-based festivals.

Origins of Makar Sankranti and Historical Significance

Makar Sankranti history traces back to ancient times when it marked the completion of the harvest season. Farmers celebrated their yield and sought blessings for future prosperity. One prominent legend in Makar Sankranti festival involves Surya, the Sun God, visiting his son Shani, who rules Capricorn, symbolizing the importance of familial bonds.

Cultural Significance and Celebrations

Makar Sankranti is celebrated with great enthusiasm across different states in India, each having its unique traditions and customs, all intertwined with the rich Makar Sankranti history.

North India

In states like Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh, Makar Sankranti history is reflected in the celebration of Lohri. This involves bonfires, singing, and dancing, marking the end of winter and the arrival of longer days.

Western India

In Gujarat and Rajasthan, the Makar Sankranti history is showcased through the vibrant kite-flying tradition. In Maharashtra, people exchange sweets made of til (sesame seeds) and jaggery, symbolizing the wish for sweetness and joy in life.

Southern India

In Tamil Nadu, Makar Sankranti is celebrated as Pongal, a four-day festival deeply rooted in Makar Sankranti history. The first day is Bhogi, the second day is Surya Pongal (dedicated to the Sun God), the third day is Mattu Pongal (dedicated to cattle), and the fourth day is Kaanum Pongal, a day for social visits and community bonding.

In Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, the festival is also known as Sankranti, celebrated with special dishes, community fairs, and cultural performances, all highlighting the essence of Makar Sankranti festival.

Eastern India

In Assam, Makar Sankranti history is evident in the celebration of Magh Bihu or Bhogali Bihu, a harvest festival with feasts, traditional games, and dances.

In Bengal, the festival is called Poush Sankranti, marked by preparing sweets made from freshly harvested paddy and date palm syrup (patali gur), reflecting the agricultural roots in Makar Sankranti festival.

Rituals and Practices

The rituals associated with Makar Sankranti include:

  • Holy Dips: Taking a dip in holy rivers like the Ganges, Yamuna, and Godavari, believed to purify the soul and wash away sins, is a practice deeply embedded in Makar Sankranti history.
  • Bonfires: Lighting bonfires, especially in North India, symbolizes the warmth and light of the Sun overcoming the darkness of winter, reflecting Makar Sankranti celebration.
  • Feasts and Sweets: Special foods made from sesame seeds, jaggery, rice, and lentils are prepared and shared, symbolizing unity and the joy of harvest, a tradition rooted in Makar Sankranti festival.
  • Kite Flying: Particularly popular in Gujarat and Rajasthan, kite flying represents the spirit of joy and competition, a vibrant part of Makar Sankranti celibration.

Makar Sankranti History: Astrological Significance

Astrologically, Makar Sankranti marks the beginning of the Sun’s northward journey (Uttarayana), considered auspicious. This period is believed to bring positive energy and good fortune, further enriching the Makar Sankranti history.


The Makar Sankranti history encapsulates the diverse cultural and agricultural heritage of India. Celebrations vary regionally, yet the core essence remains the same—gratitude for the harvest, the importance of familial and social bonds, and welcoming new beginnings. Through its rich tapestry of customs and rituals, Makar Sankranti tradition continues to be a vital part of India’s cultural landscape.

Question 1: What is the history of Makar Sankranti?

Answer: The history of Makar Sankranti is ancient, deeply rooted in Indian agricultural practices and solar movements. It is mentioned in Hindu scriptures like the Mahabharata. This festival marks the end of the winter solstice and the beginning of longer days, symbolizing new beginnings and prosperity. Makar Sankranti history also reflects the festival’s consistent alignment with the solar calendar.

Question 2: How is Makar Sankranti celebrated across India?

Answer: Makar Sankranti is celebrated in various ways across India:

  • North India: Known as Lohri, it involves bonfires, singing, and dancing.
  • Western India: Celebrated with kite flying in Gujarat and Rajasthan, and with the exchange of sweets in Maharashtra.
  • Southern India: Celebrated as Pongal in Tamil Nadu, a four-day festival; and as Sankranti in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh with special dishes and cultural performances.
  • Eastern India: Known as Magh Bihu or Bhogali Bihu in Assam, and as Poush Sankranti in Bengal, marked by preparing special sweets.

Question 3: What is the significance of Makar Sankranti?

Answer: Makar Sankranti signifies the transition of the Sun into Capricorn (Makara), marking the end of winter and the beginning of longer days. It symbolizes new beginnings, prosperity, and the harvest season’s conclusion. Astrologically, it marks the Sun’s northward journey (Uttarayana), considered auspicious and bringing positive energy and good fortune.

Question 4: What are the common rituals and practices associated with Makar Sankranti?

Answer: Common rituals and practices include:

  • Holy Dips: Taking a dip in holy rivers like the Ganges, Yamuna, and Godavari for purification.
  • Bonfires: Lighting bonfires, especially in North India, symbolizing warmth and light overcoming darkness.
  • Feasts and Sweets: Preparing and sharing foods made from sesame seeds, jaggery, rice, and lentils.
  • Kite Flying: Particularly popular in Gujarat and Rajasthan, representing joy and competition.

Question 5: What are the different names of Makar Sankranti in various regions?

Answer: Makar Sankranti is known by different names in various regions:

  • Lohri in Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh
  • Uttarayan in Gujarat
  • Pongal in Tamil Nadu
  • Magh Bihu or Bhogali Bihu in Assam
  • Poush Sankranti in Bengal

Question 6: How does Makar Sankranti differ from other Hindu festivals?

Answer: Unlike many other Hindu festivals that follow the lunar calendar, Makar Sankranti is aligned with the solar calendar. This alignment makes the date of Makar Sankranti consistent every year, typically falling on January 14th. This solar alignment highlights its unique significance among Hindu festivals.

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